Title: A Study Paper on The Solar Tsunami
Authors: S.Srideepthi & B.Susmitha, 1st Year BTech, Civil Engineering
College: Prakasam Engineering College – Kandukur
A solar tsunami is a rare astronomical phenomenon, caused by the magnetic explosion in the sun. The sun has spurted a huge cloud towards the earth which is full of electronic ions. The planet was hit by a “Solar Tsunami” racing 93 million miles across the space. Scientists have warned that the earth could be hit by a wave of violent space storm(Coronal Mass Ejection) after a massive explosion on the sun. This huge explosion could shut down the global communication and the satellites might get destroyed. “These eruptions occur when immense magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere lose their stability and can no longer be held down by the Sun’s huge gravitational pull. Just like a coiled spring suddenly being released, they erupt into space.” This means we have a very good chance of seeing major and prolonged effects, such as the northern lights at low latitudes.” The solar explosion that causes the tsunami has been observed by many satellites along with the Solar Dynamic Observatory, NASA. The blasts will reach to a maximum level in 2020 it is estimated. Along with this blast there was another blast of cold air circumference of the sun’s northern pole. A huge cloud has been thrown in to the space with these related developments. This paper focuses on the global changes caused by the future solar activity and also presented pre actions for safe guarding our lives.
Key Words: Coronal mass Ejection, Solar storms, Magneto Hydro Dynamic Waves, Solar electric repulsion, Faraday Cage
The sun is hot, bright and enormous. Its surface is a veritable caldron of white-hot matter more turbulent than anything on this planet. The biggest volcano, the strongest earthquake, the tallest tsunami does not even come close to the power unleashed every day from the surface of the sun. Solar Tsunami,It is a towering wave of hot plasma racing across the sun’s surface. It has suddenly grabbed the attention of the inhabitants of the third planet from the sun as the news of the waves heading towards earth. However, solar tsunami would just be limited to blackouts, disruption in communication systems and a rather desirable effect of brighter auroras or the northern lights. It is a tsunami-like shock wave that forms on the Sun. These waves generally roll across the hot surface of the Sun destroying or sweeping away filamentary material. These waves are infrequent yet very powerful. Technical name ‘fast- mode magneto hydro dynamical wave’. It is also referred to as ‘MHD wave’. It is also called moreton wave.
The sun, which is approximately 108 times the size of the earth, is just waking up from a period of record-breaking inactivity during an 11-year cycle set to peak in 2020. The CME clouds, usually emitted from the sun over several hours, can carry up to 10 billion tons of plasma. They usually move away from the sun at about a million miles per hour, allowing them to travel 93 million miles to Earth in only three to four days, according to a NASA press release. These kinds of eruptions are one of the first signs that the Sun is waking up and heading towards another solar maximum expected in the 2020 time frame.
Structure of the Sun:
CORONAL MASS EJECTION:
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a massive burst of solar wind and magnetic fields rising above the solar corona or being released into space. Coronal mass ejections release huge quantities of matter and electromagnetic radiation into space above the sun’s surface, either near the corona (sometimes called a solar prominence) or farther into the planet system or beyond (interplanetary CME). The ejected material is a plasma consisting primarily of electrons and protons, but may contain small quantities of heavier elements such as helium, oxygen, and even iron. It is associated with enormous changes and disturbances in the coronal magnetic field. When the ejection is directed towards the Earth and reaches it as an interplanetary CME (ICME), the shock wave of the traveling mass of Solar Energetic Particles causes a geomagnetic stormthat may disrupt the Earth’s magnetosphere, compressing it on the day side and extending the night-side magnetic tail. When the magnetosphere reconnects on the nightside, it releases poweron the order of terawatt scale, which is directed back toward the Earth’s upper atmosphere.
Sunspots – dark areas on the solar surface – are as large as our entire plant and yet form only small eddies along colossal plasma rivers along the sun’s corona (its outermost layer) where strong magnetic fields constantly shift. When groups of these planet-sized spots converge, complex solar-magnetic fields collide and release solar flares, intense sparks of magnetic energy violently spat into the cosmos. The solar flares are the planetary system’s largest explosive events, releasing more energy in the shortest period of time than any other explosive force within thousands of light years.
SOLAR TSUNAMI , IS IT -ACTUALLY HARMFUL?:
As severe as these storms appear, the historical record reveals that solar storms of even greater intensity have occurred in the past and that events even more extreme are likely to occur sometime in the future. Like supernovas and asteroid collisions, the perfect solar storm is a matter of when, not if.
Solar storms do not directly harm life on Earth, but do affect modern technology, which is so much relied upon by The most visible effect of the current solar storm is lighting up the sky in the northern hemisphere of the Earth. As the solar wind flows past the magnetosphere, it acts like a cosmic generator, producing millions of amps of electric current. scientists have warned Almost everybody still remembers the dreadful Tsunami. Now the news of solar Tsunami heading towards Earth has left the world .We need to actually wait and watch the causes and effects of this solar tsunami and wish that it doesn’t bring any harmful and dangerous effect.
The attention of astronomers all over the world is the fact that this time the eruption is of far higher intensity than the usual ones. The shock waves are travelling at a deathly pace towards earth, but the scientists assure that there is nothing to worry about. Apart from a few blackouts in certain areas of the earth, disruptions in communication facilities and rather spectacular display of lights in the northern and southern sky, there is not much to be expected from the Solar Tsunami.
DANGEROUS CONSEQUENCES OF SOLAR TSUNAMI :
Taken individually, the threats of a solar tsunami to power grid failures, loss of renewable energy sources, large variation in environmental sustainability, no chance of inventions regarding space activities, reduction in agriculture production, communication crash all over the world like T.V, Radio, Internet failure which will cost several billions of dollars worth damage and also takes huge time to solve it. But when combined, they create a system-wide vulnerability that utility operators can no longer ignore. A study carried out under the auspices of the Electromagnetic Pulse Commission found that a severe space weather event has the potential to cause permanent damage to the nation’s power leading to, “extraordinarily long restoration times.
Risks to the Bulk Power Grid:
Dangerous effects of this solar tsunami are many like power grid failures, communication (cell phone services, plane travel etc……)crash all over the world like T.V, Radio, Internet failure, which will cost several billions of dollars worth damage and also takes huge time to solve it. By such things, lot of people will face severe problems and attempts are being started to minimize them. One outbreak occurred on sun is by a sunspot which is size of our planet came shortly after a huge gas explosion known as a coronal mass ejection.
Only emergencies that result in a release of radioactive material to the atmosphere or to water bodies outside of the facility can directly affect food and commodities. Agricultural products and commodities may become contaminated with radionuclides. Also, radiation can affect agricultural plants and animals resulting in detrimental biological effects. Additional exposure of the workers during agricultural works should be also taken into account.
KEY ACCELERATORS FOR THE SOLAR TSUNAMI :
- One of the biggest concerns is the potential for a major blackout.
- The major impacts would be on the power grid.
- A major storm could cause immense damage to world communication system through satellites. It remains unclear, however, how much damage the eruption will cause the world’s communication tools.
- It could cause major blackouts that could last for weeks, possibly months or even years.
- Rapidly rising energy prices – builds urgency for renewable energy and makes solar more cost-competitive.
- Record peak power demands and outages put additional strain on the electricity grid.
- The search for energy security in an insecure world – loss of faith in existing systems pulls research and buyers forward faster than normal market conditions.
- Global warming/climate change/”scorched earth” scenarios – growing urgency for the sake of our kids and communities.
- Jobs and economic development – the need to locally build energy self-sufficiency and sustainable.
CAN WE STOP SOLAR TSUNAMI?
While almost everyone knows about tsunami that refers to destructive waves of the sea, the news of solar tsunami heading towards the Earth has left the world jittery of the relatively new and unknown phenomenon. Solar tsunami is a towering wave of hot plasma racing across the Sun’s surface. It has suddenly grabbed the attention of the inhabitants of the Earth as the news of the waves heading towards it (Earth) hit the headlines worldwide.
A Smarter Grid:
1) Improved situational awareness – through faster data acquisition and more complex analysis communicated to operators through interfaces that facilitate clearer decision-making.
(2) Faster control of system components – through automated voltage control and power flow management at both the transmission and distribution levels.
(3) Adaptive adjustment of protective mechanisms – through embedded intelligent devices capable of providing dynamic selective load shedding, intentional islanding, etc.
Improve Solar Storm Forecasting:
Highly reliable near-term forecasts of solar storms and earth-threatening CMEs would provide critical advanced warning to grid operators. Given even 15 minutes of notice, system operators can reduce generation in northern latitudes, spin up generating units in southern latitudes, offload threatened transformers and direct personnel to the most vulnerable system infrastructure.68 With adequate warning, independent system operators could reduce power transfers between adjacent systems and cancel planned maintenance work to reduce the direct costs and secondary impacts of major geomagnetic disturbances.
Faraday cage :
A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material or by a mesh of such material. Such an enclosure blocks out external static and non-static electric fields.Some people concerned about having their electronics destroyed by strong solar flares build these Faraday cages and store electronic devices in them. There are even people who build a Faraday cage within their garages in order to protect their vehicles.
- Scientists are working together to prepare for space weather events, and will soon be launching probes to monitor radiation belts.
- On individual basis, a little bit of extra water, a couple of flashlights and a transistor radio are a few good things to have.
FUTURE OF SOLAR TSUNAMI :
The small car-sized spacecraft will plunge directly into the sun’s atmosphere approximately 6.4 million kilometers (four million miles) from our star’s surface. It will explore a region no other spacecraft ever has encountered.Astronomers are predicting that a massive solar storm, much bigger in potential than the one that caused spectacular light shows on Earth earlier, is to strike our planet in 2012 with a force of 100 million hydrogen bombs. No one really knows what effect the 2012-2020 Solar Max will have on today’s digital-reliant society.
Some times you really can believe your eyes. I do believe that the Solar Maximum will show that the Sun is far from dying. The solar extreme min. that was experienced was the warning “calm” before the Terrible Solar Rage that will be unleashed. How you can safeguard your life… and the lives of your family members. Because you can really survive and spiritually thrive in the wake of this life-changing event.
- www.epp.cmu.edu/publications/Policy_Brief_Smart Grid_July_09.pdf.