Title: NEW CROSS LAYER ENHANCED MULTICASTING POWER AWARE ROUTING SCHEME IN MANET
Authors: G.Priyadharshini, S.Sriuthhra, P.Elakkiya & L.Gomathi, 4th Year, ECE Department
Guide: M.S.Gowtham, Assistant Professor, ECE Department
College: Karpagam Instutite of Technology, Coimbatore
Abstract-A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes forming an ad-hoc network without the assistance of any centralized structures or administration. It is a wireless network and a self-configuring one. Here, this paper focuses on a new multicast algorithm to increase the lifetime of the node and network. Multicast node is known to be multiple nodes used in effective communication and in collaboration among the nodes. It is also a wireless network. This paper is mainly based on two metrics. Residual battery capacity of the node and relay capacity of the node. The residual battery capacity is reduced for the amount of energy consumed by the transmitter. Relay assisted transmission is expected to improve the performance of multi-user systems. The proposed model is compared with the existing algorithms such as mulicast-incrememntal power, lifetime-aware multicast tree, multicast ad-hoc on demand distance vector protocol and multiple path multicast on-demand distance vector protocol. Here to stimulate the results Network Stimulator (NS-2.34) is used and is tested under various conditions. Some of the main parameters like Network lifetime, throughput are calculated from the simulator.
Mobile Ad Hoc Network is a network in which a set of mobile nodes communicate directly with one another without using an Access Point (AP) or any connection to the wired network. Each node or a device in MANET is free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily. Each node in MANET connected with each other via wireless radios that have limited transmission capabilities. All the nodes cannot communicate with in the transmission range due to limited transmission. If a node wishes to communicate with a node outside its range of transmission, it needs the help of other nodes in constructing a multi-hop route.
A key challenge in MANET is that communication has to be carried out with changing network topology due to node mobility. It has a wide array of military and commercial application. It maximizes total network throughput by using all available nodes for routing and forwarding. Therefore, more the number of nodes that participate in packet routing, , shorter the possible routing paths, greater the aggregate bandwidth and smaller the possibility of a network partition. The important characteristic of ad hoc network i.e. mobility is the directly reflection of a node’s confidence in the sufficiency of its past experience, and study how the collection of reliance information affects misbehavior in node’s opinions.
Multicast is the process of delivering the message to multiple users. Multicasting only transmits information to specific users. It helps to efficiently transmit streaming media and other types of data to multiple users at one time. The simple way to send data to multiple users simultaneously is to transmit individual copies of the data to each user. It is commonly used for streaming media over the Internet, such as Internet radio and live TV. It also supports video conferencing and webcasts. It helps to reduce Internet bandwidth usage.
B. Objective of the work
To increase the lifetime of the node or network there is a need of conservation of energy of the node. For that we have proposed two metrics such as residual battery capacity and relay capacity of the node.
Liang, W  proposed an approximation algorithm with provable approximation guarantee. A wireless ad hoc network consists of mobile nodes that have limited-energy batteries is to minimize the total power consumption. A multihop wireless ad hoc network is dynamically formed by a collection of more nodes and these nodes are operated by a limited- energy battery and it is impossible to recharge or replace the batteries during the operation. Multicasting is an efficient mechanism for one to many communications and it is implemented by a multicast tree. Due to severe battery power and transmission bandwidth limited in wireless networks. It is used to develop efficient multicast protocols that are optimized for energy consumption improving net performance.
Guo, X. and Liang, W  proposed an algorithm for online multicast routing in ad-hoc networks where nodes are energy constrained. The main factor is to maximize the total amount of multicast message data routed successfully over the network without any knowledge of future multicast request arrivals and generation rates. For online multicast routing in ad-hoc wireless networks, capacity of the network is proportional to the network lifetime if the transmission energy consumption for each multicast request for each multicast request is at the same time minimized. The network lifetime is proportional to network capacity when the online unicast routing by devising an algorithm based on the exponential function of energy utilization at each node.
Wang, B. and Gupta, S. K. S.  introduce and evaluate algorithms for tree construction in wireless applications. The metric used to evaluate broadcast and multicast trees is energy-efficiency. In this we develop the Broadcast Incremental Power (BIP) algorithm, by means of multicast operation and introduce the Multicast Incremental Power (MIP) algorithm. The BIP and MIP algorithms exploit the broadcast nature of the wireless communication environment, and used in energy-efficient operation. The network lifetime is defined as the duration of time until first node failure due to battery energy exhaustion. (MIP) is one of the existing approaches for finding minimum cost on multicast wireless networks.
Perkins, C. E. and Royer, E. M.  proposed the Ad-hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) protocol that is capable for unicast, multicast and broadcast communication. Broadcast data delivery is provided by AODV by using the Source IP Address and Identification fields of the IPheader as a unique identifier of the packet. The destination address of broadcast data packets is set to the well known broadcast address 255.255.255.255. An example of (AODV) is the Lightweight Adaptive Multicast LAM protocol.LAM is tightly coupled with the Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA).
In this work, two metrics are considered namely, residual battery-capacity and relay-capacity of the node to do multicasting from the source to a group of destination nodes. Here, the network lifetime is a important factor. In order to increase the network lifetime, it is obliged to attain the trade off of minimizing the energy consumption and load.
A.RELAY CAPACITY OF THE NODE
Relay capacity is used to increase the demand for high increasing demand for high data rate and reliable wireless communications. Relay assisted transmission is expected to improve the performance of multi-user systems.
B.RESIDUAL BATTERY CAPACITY
The residual battery capacity of the node is the metric in order to increase the lifetime of the node. It can be evaluated as the amount of energy remains in the battery that is the amount of time for the battery to discharge when the transmitter is overpowering. The residual battery capacity is reduced for the amount of energy consumed by the transmitter.
C.MULTICAST ROUTING SCHEME
There are three tables to forward data packets from one node to another. They are:
- Neighboring Node table
- Routing table
- Group table
Neighboring Node table:
Each node keeps information of others that are within the transmission range. This table contains node id, node position, relay capacity information and lifetime of battery. Many network protocols want associate information with a specific neighbor. Through this shared neighbor table, neighbor associated information can be reclaimed by any network protocol. In general, it should be possible to send a packet to each neighbor that has an entry in the neighbor table. When the packet is received from a node that is not in the neighbor table, it is usually safe to assume that single hop packets can be send to this node.
A routing table is a data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes. It contains information about the topology of the network immediately around it. The creation of routing tables is the primary goal of routing. This table keeps the current or existing route, which is used by the node to transmit packets. This table contains source number, destination number, sequence number, route expire-time. The destination-sequence number tracks the freshness of a route for intended destination.
If a source node (S) wants to send message to the destination node (D), then it looks for a route in its routing table. If a valid route is not found, then source node(S) uses Route Request (RREQ) packet. The node receives RREQ packet and then sends a Route Reply (RREP) packet to S, if it has path to the destination or the node broadcasts RREQ packet to the neighbors. After receiving it, S selects the shortest path among all and adds this as an entry into the routing table.
The group table keeps a list of group members. Each entry in the group table contains the multicast group-sequence number, group address, group-leader address, hop count to group-leader and next hop.
There are two cases in multicast:
If S wants to send multicast packets, then it choose a node with more residual-battery capacity as follows:
Here, BCi (t) is the residual-battery capacity of node I and ai is initial battery of I. bi is the number of packets transmitted by I, ci is the number of packets received by I. di is the number of packets transmitted by I as an intermediate node up to time t
All intermediate nodes have equal residual-battery capacity, as it chooses a node (Nc) with more relay-capacity.
It creates multicast based on the battery capacity and relay capacity of the node, that is given as:
The key point in the equation (3.4.3) is that the battery lifetime and relay capacity of the node used to increase the network lifetime. It makes more reliable communication.
We use Network Simulator (NS 2.34) to simulate our proposed muticast algorithm. Network Simulator-2(NS2.34) is used in this work for simulation. It is the of the best simulation tools available for Wireless sensor Networks. We can easily implement the designed protocols either by using the TCL (Tool command Language) coding or by writing the C++ Program. In either way, the tool helps to prove our theory analytically.
In our simulation, 100 mobile nodes move in a 1000 meter x 1000 meter square region for 60 seconds simulation time. All nodes have the equal transmission range of 150 meters. The simulated traffic is Constant Bit Rate (CBR).Our simulation settings and parameters are summarized in table 2.
A. PERFORMANCE METRICS
Packet overhead refers to the time it takes transmit data on a packet-switched network. Each packet requires extra bytes of format information that is stored in the packet header, which, is combined with the assembly and disassembly of packets, reduces the overall transmission speed of the raw data.
Table 1.Simulation Parameters
PACKET DELIVERY RATIO
It is the ratio of the number of packets received successfully and the total number of packets transmitted.
The throughput is averaged that the number of packet received without loss at the output. It is the measurement of how fast the packets that carrying the information can pass through a point.
Energy consumption relates to the total energy consumed by the setup during the entire data transmission-reception process.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In order to evaluate the performance of a network, it uses the metrics such as network lifetime, energy consumption, throughput, power consumption, and overhead. It presents the experimental results of all the five models. Then, it compares the performances of all the four models.
Shows the evaluation of Erms for different time
instances. Initially all the nodes are consume zero energy. From the results, it concludes that the MIP model has reached at the top position as compared to both the proposed model and LAM model in terms of Erms. As time increases the energy consumption of all nodes will increase due to mobility. So system requires more number of route paths to perform well. Hence it takes high energy consumption over the network.
Here, it consists of 100 mobile nodes within the defined area and the node mobility speed varies from 0–30 mts/sec. The setup executed for 25 runs with the different speed in a given topology and 50 mobile nodes transmit the data at the rate of 5 packets/sec. The node mobility is inversely proportional to throughput. The proposed model works well if the node mobility between 0–12 mts/sec. When the mobility of the node is increased (25 mts/sec), the existing models MP-MAODV, MIP, LAM,MAODV and have transmitted 70%, 50%, 59%, 60%, of the packets respectively as shown in FIG.4 The results have shows that the throughput of a network decreases, when the node mobility increases. When number of the nodes increases, the network throughput does not change substantially. The proposed model is more sensitive to the number of nodes. Due to low mobility and less number of nodes, the throughput is higher than the MP-MAODV and MIP models, but when in a larger network this value has dropped faster as compared to the MP-MAODV model.
Shows the evaluation of Erms for different time instances. Initially all the nodes are consume zero energy. From the results, it concludes that the MIP model has reached at the top position as compared to both the proposed model and LAM model in terms of Erms. As time increases the energy consumption of all nodes will increase due to mobility. So system requires more number of route paths to perform well. Hence it takes high energy consumption over the network.
Packet overhead refers to the time it takes transmit data on a packet-switched network. Each packet requires extra bytes of formatted information that is stored in the packet header, which, combines with the assembly and disassembly of packets, the overall transmission speed of the raw data is reduced. The overhead decreases from 90 to 30 when the group size increases from 2 to 18. The proposed model gives better results compared with LAM, MIP MP-MAODV, and MAODV.
Table 2. Comparison between proposed model and existing models
The table shows the comparison results between proposed model and various algorithms. The parameters discussed above proved to provide better performance in proposed model.
Figure .2 Power Consumption
Figure .3 Energy Consumption
In this paper the main design contains in the MANET is that the mobile nodes are energy constrained. Here the multicast algorithms are developed to reduce the energy consumption of all the nodes in the network. The proposed algorithm is different from the existing algorithms. The proposed algorithms exhibit more lifetimes of the node and network, and throughput when compared with other algorithms. . It is addressed with few limitations against the power-aware metrics in the multicast algorithms. The stimulation results in this paper shows that proposed model improved the network lifetime by 20% on average. Extending network lifetime is accomplished by finding multicast protocols that tends to minimize the variation of remaining energy of all nodes. The power-aware multicast protocols lead to create additional control traffics. The basic mechanism in this work is highly extensible and supports QoS for the MANETs.
Future work is to be implemented with the cross layer by interfacing the network layer and transport layer for easy communication. Integration of power aware will be implemented. Congestion avoidance scheme will be implemented to improve packet delivery ratio.
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