Author: M.N.D.V.Surekha & P.Pujitha, 3rd Year, BTech, ECE

College: Prakasam Engineering college, Kandukur


As Technology is increasing rapidly it’s becoming both “A BOONE AND A BANE” for us. The best example for this is “MOBILE RADIATION”. On an average 3.2millions of mobiles are using all over the world. Each mobile emits 1.6watts of radiation per an hour, 5.12million watts of radiation per an hour is created by us. Though there are many advantages there are disadvantages too by using mobiles and their towers.

Of late a lot if concern has been voiced in electronic as well as print media about uninhabited installation 0f cell phone towers in thickly polluted areas of many cities in India .As the cell phone base in India is expanding at nearly 17% per annum(it may cross 500 million subscribers by the end of this year),the requirement for cell phone towers will also grow proportionality .In the aftermath of the court verdict relating to Bhopal gas tragedy and the key clause in the pending nuclear liability bill, there is a growing concern about harmful effects of radiation from the towers.

Types of Radiation: 1) Ionising & 2) Non ionizing
Biological effects: Tissue damage in humans, Skin cancer, Clashes of honey bees …….
Remedies: Radiation reduction by using natural sources like ALOVERA


Today cell phones are an intrinsic part of the everyday life .Most uses it for at least an hour a day. However experts warn against their overuse an advocate hands free operation that keep the phone away from the head. Currently there are more than 50 crore cell phone users and nearly 4.4lakh cell phone towers.83% of 18-29 years old is wived all the time and sleep with their cell phone next to their heads.. Thus cell phone users have increased and so have service providers and network towers. But a large population in the country remains oblivious to the harms from radiation from mobiles and cell towers. In the aftermath of the court verdict relating to Bhopal tragedy and the key clause in the pending nuclear liability bill, concern about harmful effects of radiation from the towers.


As people use cell phones to make calls, signals are transmitted back and forth to the base station. The RF waves produced at base stations are given off in to the environment, where people can be exposed to them.

The energy from a cell phone tower antenna, like that of other telecommunication antennas, is directed parallel to the ground, with some downward scatter. Base stations antennas use higher power levels than other types of land mobiles antennas, but much lower levels than those from radio and television broad cast stations. The amount of energy decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the antenna. As a result, the level of exposure to radio waves at ground level is very low compared to the level close to antenna.

cell tower

Exposure of Radiation from mobiles, cell towers

At ground level near typical cellular base stations, the amount of RF energy is 1ooo times less than the limits for safe exposure set by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) and other regulatory authorities. It is very unlikely that a person could be exposed to RF levels in excess of these limits just by being near a cell phone tower.

When cellular antennas are mounted on rooftops, it is possible that a person on the roof could be exposed to RF levels greater than those typically encountered on the ground. But even then, exposure levels approaching or exceeding the FCC safety guidelines are only likely to be found very close to and directly in front of antennas. If this is the case, access to these areas should be limited.

The level of RF energy inside buildings where a base station is mounted is typically much lower than the level outside depending on the construction materials of the buildings. Wood or cement block reduces the exposure level of RF radiation by a factor of about 10.The energy level behind an antenna is hundreds to thousands of times lower than in front. Therefore, if an antenna is mounted on the side of a building, the exposure level in the room directly behind the wall is typically well below the recommended exposure limits.



Radiation types

Fig shows different forms of Radiation

When referring to biological radiation exposures, EM radiation is divided into two types: ionizing and nonionising. Because the human body is composed of about 60 per cent water, ionising and non-ionizing radiations refer whether the RF energy is high enough to break chemical bonds of water (ionizing) or not (non-ionizing).amount of energy that can remove an electron from a water (1.216/mol), and non-ionizing radiation is anything less than that amount.

Examples of ionizing radiation include alpha particle radiation, beta particle radiation, neutrons, and gamma rays and-rays.

Examples of non-ionizing radiation are sound waves, visible light, RF and microwaves. The RF spectrum covers the range of about 3 kHz to 300GHz. The cell phone frequencies are the sets of frequency ranges within the UHF band (300 MHz and 3 GHz or 3000 MHz) of RF spectrum. Nonionising radiation is considered to be harmless below the levels that cause heating. Higher levels of non-ionizing radiation are dangerous indirect exposure, although the degree of danger is subject of debate.


far field

EM Regions surrounding an antenna

Reactive near-field: It is the region immediately surrounding the antenna where in the reactive field predominates. Reactive near-field pattern is spherical and decays rapidly with the distance from antenna. Radial limit R1of reactive near-field is given by: R1 = 0.62 √ D3/where ‘D’ is the largest dimension of the antenna and ‘λ’ is the wavelength.(To be valid, ‘D’ must be large compared to the wavelength.)

Radiating near-field: This region lies between the reactive near-field region and the far-field region where in radiation field predominates (in the presence of reactive field). Here the radial field component may be appreciable, while the field pattern is dependent upon the distance from the antenna. Radial limit R2 of the radiating near-field is given by: R2 = 2 D2/λ.

Radiating far-field: The field region beyond radiating near-field is radiating far-field, which theoretically extends to infinity. Here the field pattern is essentially independent of the distance from the antenna. In the far field region, the field components are transverse and propagate as a plane wave (refer Fig. 5). The radiating far field decays inversely as its distance from the antenna.



One should not use a cell phone for more than 18-24 minutes a day. This information is not commonly known to Indians, and so crores of people use cell phones for more than an hour every day without realizing its health hazards.

If a person uses his mobile 18 minutes a day it is indicated by green colour , if he uses more than 18 minutes it indicates in yellow colour it shows that the person is effecting by radiation. If he uses mobile for longer time he will be affected by more radiation it is given by red colour.

If a person uses his mobile 18 minutes a day it is indicated by green colour , if he uses more than 18 minutes it indicates in yellow colour it shows that the person is effecting by radiation. If he uses mobile for longer time he will be affected by more radiation it is given by red colour.

color coding

Effect of Radiation explained by using colour coding



For a 5 years old child 75 % of radiation penetrates in to His skull, for 10 years old child 50% of radiation is absorbed by his brain. And for adults the exposure of radiation is nearly 25%. So Children must be discouraged from using mobile phones and restrict use to emergency, while adults should “Keep calls short”.


birds - radiation

Effect on Plants and Animals

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from cell phone and cell tower affects birds, animals, plant and environment as well. One would never see a bee, sparrow, pigeon, or any bird flying and staying near the cell tower as the magnetic field disturbs their navigational Skills. The rising electromagnetic pollution causes Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in bees and birds. Bees even cannot find their way back to the hive. The consistent electromagnetic background noise seems to disruptinter cellular communication within individual bees. Recently, a sharp decline has also been noticed in commercial bee population in Kerala, the state with highest density of mobile towers, posing a serious threat to honey bees.

When birds are exposed to weak electromagnetic fields, they become disoriented and begin to fly in all directions. A large number of birds like pigeons, sparrows, swans are getting lost due to interference from the new “unseen EMR —which, affect migratory birds ’navigational abilities too. Of the 23Species of birds, millions die during migration each year as accidents occur when birds might be using the earth’s magnetic field for navigation, and could be seriously disoriented by the microwave radiation from telecommunication masts.

Apart from bees, birds and animals, electromagnetic radiation emanating from cell towers can also affect vegetables, crops and plants in its vicinity. Studies Show definitive clues that cell phone EMF can choke seeds, inhibit germination and root growth, thereby affecting the overall growth of agricultural crops and plants. A reduction in wheat and corn yield in the fields near high EMF lines has also been reported.



Aloe vera
Aloevera Plant

The one way to reduce radiation is by “ALOEVERA” which can be used as Antiseptic also.
Antiseptic: The plant produces six natural antiseptic agents:
• Lupeol,
• a natural salicylic acid,
• urea nitrogen,
• cinnamic acid,
• phenol,
• and sulfur.
It also consists of 90% of Iridium and Ruthenium. We can use Ir192 in addition with Direct Band Gap elements (Ga) reduces radiation due to its properties like:

  •  Good Corrosion Resistance.
  •  It can withstand for very High Temperatures.
  •  It is a Very Hard Crystal.

But Ir192 which absorbs radiation emits gamma rays we provide a Lead shielding which has a very great tendency of absorbing gamma rays due to its high Atomic Number (82), Density and Thickness.
The molecular formula of iso-aloesin is C19H22O9, which is plays a vital role to absorb Radiation. It is given as:
Iridium Isotope Ir192 which has a great tendency to absorb radiation but it emits gamma rays .These gamma rays can be avoided to emit by providing LEAD shielding, which can absorb gamma rays due to its high Atomic number (82), Density and Thickness.

Ir192+ (Direct Band gap Elements) +Lead shielding………absorbs………> Radiation+gamma rays

Thus Ir 192which is very abundant in ALOVERA can be used with Direct Band gap elements coated with lead shielding
Reduces the effect of Radiation.

2. Don’t put the cell phone in your pocket or belt while in use or while it is on. The body tissue in the lower body area has good conductivity and absorbs radiation more quickly than the head. One study shows that men who wear cell phones near their groin could have their sperm count dropped by as much as 30 percent.

3. ANTI RADIATION PAINTS: (PMA) It works on energy conversion principle to transfer radiation energy into heat energy.PMA anti-radiation coating which is invented by PMA group is the only high-tech water-based painting product that using absorbing technology. It is obtained national invention patent.

4. RADIATION SHEILDING: Tungsten which is unbreakable and safe handling of radioactive liquids, due to this advantage it can be used for radiation shielding. It greatly reduces the effect of Radiation


Thus Mobile Radiation is a major burning issue in now a days, following suitable steps and by using ALOEVERA a natural plant we can reduce the effect of Radiation to a great extent.



• http://au.video.yahoo.com/watch/8546044/22969162
• http://www.yoytube.com/watch?v=Ioc99xpiYLEfeature=player
• For more videos at Blog: http://neha-wilcom.blogspot.com;Twitter: https://twitter.com/wilcom neha.


• Prof. Girish Kumar – Newsletter on Cell Tower Radiation – Sep-Oct. 2013 issue.
• Mobile Telecommunications and health research programme (MTHR) report 2007- http://www.mthr.org.uk/documents/MTHR report 2007.pdf.
• Levitt Blithe, Biological effects from exposure of EMR by cell towers base stations Environ.Rev.18:369-395, 2010.
• http://article.pubs.hrc- cnrc.yc.ca/RPAS/rpv?him=HInit&Journal=er&volume=18&caly by=energy&afpf=910-018/.pdf
• Power Density: Radio frequency Non-Ionizing Radiation, May 2007 http//www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/niemr/powerdensity effects.pdf.